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SEMITRANS® IGBT Modules (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Modules)
input (voltage controlled) channel saturation voltage series available Very tail current with temperature dependence latch-up, i.e. NPT-Non punch through technology,
Frequency converters motor drives servo robot drives Self-commutated inverters choppers Switched mode power supplies Inductive heating Uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) Electronic welders General power switching applications Pulse frequencies also above
using homogeneous silicon structure
High short circuit capability, selflimiting Isolated copper baseplate Fast very soft inverse diodes, i.e.
Controlled Axial Lifetime technology
Large clearances creepage distances recognition; file Positive temperature coefficient CEsat, therefore
Important Handling Instructions
avoid electrostatic charge gate which could
destroy IGBT-MOSgate, module delivered with conductive part connecting gate source electrically. page
When unpacking module during assembly
conductive grounded armbands conductive grounded working place.
SEMITRANS® Type Designation System
SEMIKRON component technology; diode input bridge Collector current grade Tcase Functional element IGBTs (blank MOSFET) Circuit Single IGBT (SINGLE) Asymmetric H-bridge (IGBT diode left, diode IGBT right) Single IGBT diode collector side (Low side switch gate pins left) Single IGBT diode emitter side (High side switch gate pins right) Single IGBT diode collector side, reversed, gate pins left Single IGBT diode emitter side, reversed, gate pins right IGBTs series connection (DUAL module) IGBTs diodes series (DUAL module) IGBTs six-pulse bridge connection (SIXPACK) Sixpulse IGBT bridge with brake chopper (AL) circuit Full single phase H-bridge IGBTs centre connnection (common emitter "2") special request Collector-emitter voltage grade: 1200 1700 Series (Generation) first series 1988 1991 (ICN Tcase second series 1992 1996 (ICN Tcase series i.e. high density IGBT chips, inductance case Tcase series i.e. loss, VCEsat IGBT chips 1998) (ICN Tcase ultrafast series i.e. high frequency use, almost tail. Fast recovery, soft inverse diode built-in
SEMITRANS® IGBT Modules
Captions Figures Fig. Maximum rated power dissipation Ptot IGBT element function case temperature module. Fig. Turn-on/-off energy dissipation Eoff pulse IGBT element function collector current mixed resistive/inductive load including influence free-wheeling diode turn-off using suitable turn-on (-off) power dissipation obtained multiplying (Eoff) with pulse frequency. Turn-on(-off) energy dissipation (Eoff) pulse IGBT element function gate series resistance turn-off power dissipation obtained multiplying Eoff with pulse frequency. Rgon Rgoff selected with different values from each other. Please mind voltage spikes -LStray di/dt. Keep VCES. fig. short circuit switch-off. Safe operating area (SOA) under pulse conditions. pulse duration. Single pulse; IGBT switching device cannot continuously driven linear amplifier mode. high voltage (VCE local overheating chip cause failures. page lowest line (equivalent "DC") cannot used about respectively Turn-off safe operating area under pulse conditions (RBSOA). periodically. Safe operating area short circuit switch-off Lext resp. Note: achievable number short circuits: 1000. Time between short circuits: IGBT device ("Non punch through") with homogeneous silicon structure (instead epitaxial structure with layer carrier life time killers). homogeneous IGBT short circuit current self limiting about ICnom ICnom Please note: Lext larger, check short circuit, adapt reduce Lext. Collector short-circuit current function turn-on gate-emitter voltage when turning against given supply voltage with load short-circuited given only some types. this diagram missing page Maximum rated collector current function case temperature Tcase. Switching losses neglected. Collector current function collectoremitter voltage (typical output characteristics). Parameter: Gate-emitter voltage Fig. Same Fig. Fig. Saturation characteristics (IGBT) Calculation elements equations linear approximation. Values given typical maximum values calculations accordance with latest chip development. Fig. Collector current function gateemitter voltage (typ. transfer characteristic). Fig. Typ. gate charge characteristic. Gate-emitter voltage function gate-emitter charge Qgel maximum rated collector-emitter voltage VCE. Fig. Typ. input capacitance Cies, output capacitance Coes reverse transfer capacitance (Miller capacitance) Cres functions collectoremitter voltage VCE. Fig. Typ. switching times (IC). Turn-on delay time tdon, rise time turn-off delay time tdoff collector current fall time function collector current given gate series resistance with inductive load free-wheeling diode. Fig. Typ. switching times (RG), fig. given conditions. Fig. Forward characteristics inverse diode. Typical maximum values junction temperature. Fig. Typ. turn-off energy dissipation EoffD pulse inverse diode function forward current Parameter: Gate series resistance associated IGBT (which determines current rate rise). turn-off power dissipation obtained multiplying Eoff with pulse frequency fsw. Fig. Transient thermal impedance junction case Zthjc IGBT element function time elapsed after step change power dissipation ("single pulse") thermal impedance under pulse conditions junction case R(thjc)p function pulse duration Parameter: Duty cycle Fig. Transient thermal impedance fast recovery diode ZthjcD (Inverse diode), Fig. Fig. Transient thermal impedance freewheeling diode types) Fig. Typical diode peak reverse recovery current (IF; Parameter: Gate resistor RGon opposite IGBT (which determines IC/dt). limited SOA, Fig. Fig. Typ. diode peak reverse recovery current (diF/dt): Parameter Rgon. values higher. Fig. Typ. diode recovered charge (diF/dt) Parameter: Rgon
SEMITRANS® IGBT Modules
More Details Figures Fig.
case thjc IGBT
continous value without regarding derating switching Fig. Typ. IGBT output characteristic linear approximation use: (linear equation format)
(linear equation format)
Ptot case thjc thjc
Ptotmax Ptot case 125° thjc thjc Fig.
given test condition (Tcase
Fig. Worst case values calculated from typ. values Fig. given there follows:
with [°C]. Fig. Transconductance
upper left limit IGBT
VCEsat 150°C 150°C
Fig. Diode forward voltage: linear approximation use: VT(TO); table datasheet. Diode forward current limit (average value):
suitable linear use, only designed switching applications. Fig.
Short circuit current ICSC f(VGE) normalized over conditions Fig. Fig.
Using VCE(O)(Tj) rCE(Tj)
input bridge: check surge current IFSM diodes Hz): IFSM
(for selection input fuses) Fig.
from Fig. worst case conditions
SEMIKRON 0898 0996
SEMITRANS® IGBT Modules
Technical Explanations IGBT chip IGBT-chip basically modified MOSFET-transistorchip (see Fig. (MOSFET METAL OXIDE SILICON FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR). Operation IGBT linear amplifier IGBT designed switching current. Operation linear amplifier aimed recommended either. This because forward transconductance increases with junction temperature (within certain collector current range) which would result increase collector current constant gate voltage chip being heated that current (thermal runaway). Datasheet Fig. shows, that curve (VCE; VGE) horizontal overheat chip. also page Fig. switching operation this feature irrelevant since conducting state collector current controlled load; device works saturation. Letter symbols currents voltages Fig. Layer structure graphical symbol IGBT MOSFET designed n+n- silicon. IGBT (Fig.2 below), homogeneous silicon substrate with specially formed junction rear. This junction causes conducting-state voltage reduced charge-carrier injection state. letter symbols voltages applied IGBT's have least subscripts indicating terminals which voltage applied. first subscript identifies positive terminal. Examples: collectoremitter voltage, collector terminal being positive. gate-emitter voltage positive gate, conducting state. negative gate-emitter voltage would identified with negative numerical value VEG. Frequently third subscript added indicating conditions third terminal. following subscripts used: short-circuited specified resistor specified voltage
addition three subscripts explained above following suffixes denote further service conditions: Fig. Cross section homogeneous IGBT-silicon structure recent progress SEMIKRON uses high density IGBT chips. pitch microcell structure reduced from about cell density 106/sq.inch. This optimised VCEsat homogeneous silicon structure, still maintaining high switching speed, reduced switching losses high safe operating area SOA. Details about homogeneous IGBT technology page Denomination terminals, polarities conducting state drain (collector) side junction flooded charge carriers. IGBT therefore functions like transistor having gate. Consequently terminal corresponding drain power MOSFET named collector, corresponding source named emitter. control voltage applied between gate emitter, output current (collector current) flows between collector emitter. With positive gate voltage IGBT turned (positive) collector current flows from collector emitter. output current flow reverse direction possible; rule inverse diode provided which carries this current.
threshold voltage (last letters) saturation voltage (last letters) clamped voltage (last letters)
Examples: VCEsat collector-emitter saturation voltage, VCER collector-emitter voltage with specified gate-emitter resistor. Supply voltages indicated duplicating subscript reference terminal. Examples: collector- emitter circuit supply voltage VCCE (VCC), gate-emitter circuit supply voltage VGGE (VGG). indicated parenthesis, third subscript omitted where there ambiguity. letter symbols currents follow same basic rules. Example: ICES collector-emitter cut-off current with gate short-circuited emitter when (positive) current flows into collector terminal. ambiguity likely occur second subscript omitted: collector current, gate current. following additional subscripts use: peak (maximum) value repetitive non-repetitive.
Examples: peak collector current, ICRM repetitive peak collector current. Saturation voltage VCEsat With constant collector current collector-emitter voltage decreases with increasing gate-emitter voltage until saturation value VCEsat reached, below which will fall even very high gate voltage values (Section Fig. This saturation value, multiplied relevant collector current, gives lowest possible value steady state power dissipation (i.e. excluding switching losses) conducting state Fig. 11). Switching times gate control With bipolar transitors switching times related base current collector current waveforms. IGBT switching times related gate-emitter voltage collector current waveforms. Fig. below shows typical waveforms. Since these waveforms depend circuit conditions values given data sheets used rough orientation only. Exact values only measured practical circuit.
switching times IGBT mainly determined internal capacitances parasitic inductances together with internal resistance gate control voltage source. order charge discharge capacitances rapidly reduce transients caused gate circuit inductance internal impedance control voltage source would desirable. shortens switching times reduces switching losses. other hand very fast turn-on causes high peak reverse recovery current through opposite inverse diode which appears IGBT additional peak collector current, very fast turn-off high transient voltage caused parasitic collector-emitter inductance (both indicated Fig. Therefore compromise found concerning gate circuit resistance. case very important keep parasitic inductance gate circuit minimum using very short (even twisted) leads. This inductance might otherwise generate parasitic oscillations conjunction with IGBT capacitances. same reason emitter side lead from gate control circuit connected separate terminal provided avoid coupling with collector-emitter main circuit. When paralleling, insert here maximum rated gate-emitter voltage VGES specified data sheets most cases must exceeded under circumstances since this would cause immediate failure IGBT. recommended connect diode between gate emitter protection means clamp gate against gate supply voltage fast (Schottky) diode. switching times given data sheets Section measured circuit shown Fig. below:
Fig. Waveform gate-emitter voltage VGE, collector-emitter voltage collector current during turn-on turn-off. peak collector current during turn-on caused recovered charge opposite inverse diode, peak collector-emitter voltage turn-off parasitic inductances. Lstray dic/dt)
Fig. Circuit measuring switching times. Further recommendations concerning gate control IGBT modules found datsheet driver circuit: SEMIDRIVER SKHI
Turn-on time ton, turn-on delay time td(on) rise time threshold voltage VGE(th) order turn IGBT steeply rising voltage generated gate control circuit. internal resistance voltage source internal gateemitter capacitances IGBT real gate-emitter voltage rises less steeply. When reached threshold voltage VGE(th) collector current starts rising. time interval between instant when reaches final value instant when reached final value called turn-on delay time td(on). following time interval instant when collector current reaches final value called rise time During that period time most turnon power dissipation takes place. influence gate circuit resistance discussed detail foregoing section. Fig. (Eon Eoff). turn-on delay time td(on) rise time called turn-on time ton. ton, collector-emitter voltage often fallen final value VCEsat (see Fig. This considered when calculating turn-on dissipation. peak collector current shown Fig. indicates peak reverse recovery current opposite inverse free-wheeling diode which often used. This peak current taken into account turn-on power dissipation calculations well. Turn-off time toff, turn-off delay time td(off), fall time turn IGBT off, driving voltage gate control circuit instantaneously switched zero negative voltage. negative gate voltage recommended avoid short switch-on Miller capacitance Cres keep below VGE(th) switch-off. Again gate circuit resistance great influence. There first turn-off delay time td(off) from instant when gate-emitter voltage fallen initial value instant when collector current fallen initial value. following period time instant when fallen value called fall time td(off) called turn-off time toff. switching times shown Fig. datasheets. Tail current ICT, tail time trade-off favourable reduction conducting state power loss compared with MOSFET IGBT's tail current. higher lower saturation voltage CEsat producer. Since pulse frequencies switching losses prevail, SEMITRANS IGBT modules with their homogeneous silicone structure designed tail current which very does increase with junction temperature expense saturation voltage which little higher than minimum value possible with epitaxial silicone structure. tail current tail time basically properties IGBT itself also depend operating conditions. typical value comparison rough estimations turn-off energy dissipation during turnA
time (see Fig.3)
which given first page data sheets under specified conditions. Eoff includes effect tail current (about from linearly down about over tail time about tail current depends smaller cause higher tail current. Eoff function Fig. datasheet. exact calculation power dissipation Eoff* actual voltage VCC* current waveforms practical circuit should determined, using ICref from datasheet Fig. i.e. -(2) Transient voltage during turn-off, collector-emitter inductance turn-off power dissipation high rate fall collector current desirable. other hand rapidly falling generates parasitic inductances principal circuit transient voltage spike collector-emitter voltage which destroy IGBT.
order avoid this, following measures recommended: Carefully sheeted inductance circuit layout minimize parasitic lead inductances, Clamping overvoltage spikes inductance pulse capacitor, (i.e. (0,1 from WIMA others) connected closely possible IGBT module. internal parasitic drain-source inductance inductance cases SEMITRANS given data sheets. very high rates fall collector current voltage derated transient voltage generated LCE. voltage measured across collector emitter terminals CE(term) (between terminals should therm This formula considers internal parasitic inductance only. protecting means necessary addition. other hand possible reduce rate fall collector current connecting series resistor between gate gate control circuit which decelerates charge discharge gate-emitter capacitance. Since this resistor increases total resistance gate circuit, danger excess transient gate-emitter voltages increased. Therefore protective Zener (i.e. diode connected between gate auxiliary emitter recommended. case slowly falling collector current causes higher turn-off power dissipation. discussed foregoing sections, compromise found using oscilloscope.
Calculation junction temperature most important limiting value with respect permissible current rating IGBT with most power semiconductor devices maximum permissible junction temperature TjM. Unfortunately cannot measured directly, calculated from internal thermal resistance junction-case Rthjc total power dissipation PTOT. Since total power dissipation also basic parameter calculating cooling attachment, first part this section will devoted determination. switching transistor normally required conduct periodic current pulses constant repetition frequency amplitude. Under these conditions convenient calculate energy dissipated during single current pulse. This energy subdivided into turn-on energy Eon, steady state conduction energy Econd turn-off energy Eoff. These described general formulae:
Vcond resp. VCEsat taken from Fig. Section typical worst case, from Fig. typical value. convenient start from given case temperature Tcase following calculations single IGBT. average junction temperature Tj(AV) calculated from (steady state) thermal resistance junction case Rthjc average total power dissipation PTOT(AV). latter results from averaging energy dissipations pulse over full period (cycle time) 1/f:
Econd PTOT PTOT cond Eoff
From PTOT(AV)the average virtual junction temperature Tj(AV) calculated:
Fig. Fig. Fig.
When IGBT module operate pulse frequency below oscillation junction temperature with pulse frequency which increases lower frequency must considered. Fig.
collector current waveform assumed shown Fig. above. switching losses IGBT (10a) Fig. Oscillation junction temperature with collector current pulse frequency this case maximum value this oscillation calculated using diagram pulse thermal resistance Z(thjc)p versus pulse duration (example: Fig.6) together with maximum total power dissipation TOTM. latter results from averaging energy dissipation pulse over pulse duration only:
-VCCref cref Eoff CCref Icref
values voltages currents different conditions than those referred datasheet curve i.e. VCCref (for 1200 IGBTs) VCCref 1200 (for 1700 IGBTs) ICref conduction state apply equation Econd cond tcond (11) conduction losses Pcond CEsat
cond Eoff PTO=
actual values, however, depend considerably gate drive conditions described foregoing section strongly recommended determine them measurement actual circuit.
emphasised that calculations using diagram Z(thjc)p function peak power dissipation PTOaveraged over pulse duration must used since average over full period already contained Z(thjc)p curves. Some designers PTOT(AV) incorrectly have correct resulting high load capability values reduction factors.
VCEsat (max. worst case) from Fig.
CEsat VCEO 25°C 25°C
pos. temp. coeff. slope resistance (see datasheet, Fig.
(20b) (20c) (20d)
pos. temp. coeff. saturation threshold voltage
Fig. Thermal resistance Z(thjc)p junction case IGBT module under pulse conditions function pulse width Parameter: Duty cycle Fig. datasheet. high short values, i.e. high frequencies, R(thjc)p curves become horizontal. That means: these frequencies thermal inertia junction reached; temperature does oscillate more. This means that Tj(AV) TjM. Therefore: frequencies above calculation using PTOT(AV) Rthjc gives correct results. Z(thjc)p diagram needed kHz! Calculation permissible collector current means deduced formulae permissible collector current calculated given IGBT given highest permissible junction temperature. Frequency kHz; Tj(AV) case thjc
junction temp. [°C] permissable conduction losses switching frequency are: ICmax condmax PTO- CCref ICref (15b) using VCCref ICref from Fig. datasheet.
condmax cmax cmax (20e) VCEO cmax
This iterative calculation which programmed using EXCEL LOTUS find thermal optimum. These calculations were made using thermal considerations only. addition, diagram (page Fig. giving destruction limits must considered well. Calculation required cooling arrangement foregoing sections calculations were made fixed case temperature Tcase. fact, course, case temperature results from cooling conditions. First, contact thermal resistance case heatsink which given data sheets considered. Multiplied mean power dissipation PTOT(AV) (oscillations temperature with pulse frequency expected this level) gives difference temperature between case heatsink: case thch (22) heatsink temperature finally results from temperature Tamb cooling medium flowing heatsink (normally air), heatsink thermal resistance Rthha mean total power dissipations PTOT(AV) transistors other heat sources mounted that heatsink:
(17) (18a) (18b)
cond Eoff cond CCref
VCEO VCEO cmax (19)
using Pcond, VCEO(Tj), rCE(Tj) from Fig. datasheet. Frequency kHz; Tj(AV) from datasheet Fig. with case thjcp (16a)
Eoff cond (15a) VCCref cond CEsat
VCEsat (typical) from datasheet curve Fig. (20) (20a)
contrast Rthjc Rthch heatsink thermal resistance Rthha fixed value. rather depends natural cooling also called convection cooling average total power dissipation PTOT(AV), with cooling flow. Furthermore makes difference whether that power dissipated single heat source several sources equally distributed over heatsink surface. Also size contact areas heat sources plays role. SEMIKRON heatsinks specially designed cooling power modules thermal resistance values given tables diagrams considering these influences. Measuring energy dissipation Econd Eoff previously discussed section calculation junction temperature energy dissipations pulse Eon, Econd, Eoff only calculated approximately. Therefore will often necessary verify this estimation measurement. this purpose equation
Turn-off under overload conditions
maximum time interval turning overload current gate (see Section Fig. favourable keep time well below this value feeding turn-off command directly gate control voltage generator. overcurrent detected either d.c. side inverter each individual IGBT, instance sensing collector-emitter voltage VCE. latter case also short circuits between load circuit ground detected (i.e. short circuit current capability ICSC versus rated current Tcase given stray inductance, Fig. datasheet) Fig. current automatically limited reduces, getting hot, almost independent full VCES voltage (see Fig. below).
transformed PTOT thha
Since power dissipation single IGBT measured symbol omitted here. measurement arrangement could follows. small heatsink just sufficient single module should small give high difference temperature) rigidly attached small (with cooling thermal resistance does depend power dissipation steady state values established much faster). temperature sensors mounted; measuring temperature Tamb flowing heatsink other measuring heatsink temperature fixing points chosen arbitrarily mounting positions should kept same order ensure results which reproduced. module measured mounted cooling arrangement described above. Either single IGBT measured together. First IGBT measured connected source supplying smooth, constant direct current switched into conducting state. applied power determined measuring current voltage. From temperature difference measured sensors thermal resistance Rthha experimental cooling arrangement results: (25) thha -PDC Without altering mechanical arrangement IGBT connected circuit under development (short leads!) operated under real pulse conditions. another temperature difference Tamb2 measured. With thermal resistance Rthha calculated from (25) mean total power dissipation determined
Fig. 7IGBT Short circuit
Fig. Normalised Short circuit characteristic
Latch-up capability shown equivalent circuit diagram (Fig. below), transistor parasitic transistor form thyristor structure. thyristor structure latch high current high turn-off rate (di/dt), IGBT becomes uncontrollable. technology selected homogeneous IGBT resulted latch-up effect being eliminated. Controllability maintained over whole temperature range even event overcurrent, short-circuit extremely rapid switching.
reduced peak reverse recovery current, reducing turn-on losses opposite IGBT considerably comparison other technologies. snap-off after reverse recovery current peak over total current temperature range. very soft decline reverse current resulting very small reverse voltage spike (see Fig. compared Fig. below) datasheet diagrams showing diode features fig. advantage diodes especially visible 1700 devices. diodes allow much faster switching reducing switching losses about third comparison conventional diode technology therefore extending switching frequency substantially. forward voltage overshoot switch-on diode, instant when opposite IGBT switches reduced about compared previous version. forward voltage drop reduced much lower temp. dependance than before. Temp. coefficient VT(TO) 0,002 V/°C excellent paralleling. 1200 range thermal impedance reduced resulting higher current capability first page datasheet. Rigid design (high values) makes these IGBT modules excellent work input rectifier regenerative inverter/converter device, regenerating recycling brake energy.
Fig. Cross section IGBT with equivalent circuit diagram. Inverse diodes comparison MOSFET, IGBT monolythically integrated inverse diode. Therefore SEMITRANS IGBT modules contain inverse diodes builtin separate chips properties which specially optimised using CAL-technology (see below) match IGBT switching operation. Fast supersoft diodes step forward introduction SEMIKRON diode, fast supersoft planar diode, matched fast switching high density IGBT chip. stands "Controlled Axial Lifetime". means implantation process epitaxial silicon wafers, using He++ ions adjustment basic charge carrier life time optimal axial profile charge carrier life time achieved. This results
Fig. Principal reverse recovery behaviour fast recovery diode
Homogeneous (NPT-) epitaxial (PT-) IGBT IGBT ("Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor") bipolar transistor with MOSFET type gate control area. This MOSFET input makes IGBT voltage controlled device with high input impedance, control energy consumption, high switching speed switching losses, almost temperature independent. homogeneous silicon structure SEMIKRON IGBT means, that silicon wafer from bottom consists original silicon crystal structure original silicon wafer type silicon, about thick. Fig.12a below. homogeneous structure also called ("Non Punch Through") IGBT advantageous higher voltages (VCE 1200 1700 because excludes latch-up during short-circuit switch-off with very high dv/dt, full rectangular safe operating area full VCES full current.
This allows snubberless inverter design. Further merrits positive temperature coefficient saturation voltage VCEsat, which makes preferred device paralleling both chips well modules, even without selection VCEsat classes. hotter chip automatically takes less current. Also advantage lower switching losses caused low, almost temperature independent tail current which especially advantageous high switching frequencies. epitaxial silicon structure alternative silicon structure. (See fig. above). This during production process received additional epitaxial silicon layer structure about silicon buffer layer") plus about silicon upon original wafer silicon type silicon substrate, totally about thick. This silicon structure also called PT("Punch Through")-IGBT structure. This PT-IGBT limitations respect safe operating area, which fully rectangular, full current only about VCES, which must acknowledged avoid destructive latch-up during short-circuit switch-off. Other limitations comparatively high temperature dependent tail current, caused buffer layer with carrier lifetime killers, leading much higher switching losses neg. temp. coefficient VCEsat which cause problems when paralleling. Actual Mechanical Case Design ".123D", ".173D" cases SEMITRANS SEMITRANS have reduced (from seats mounting screws fixing heatsink. Thus length these screws could reduced from also using normal steel quality "4.8" instead "8.8" special. Because this mounting torque unified range lbs.in) thread well Posidrive screws with captive washers ordered from SEMIKRON separate item required quantities, page Alternative mounting hardware available market, i.e. standard hexagon head TORX head screws. SEMITRANS case (SKM 50GB123D 145GB123D 75GB173D GB173D) received longer creepage distance adapted SEMITRANS voltage 1200 (railway systems) resp. line voltage Essential progress made inductance design cases SEMITRANS (half bridge module) SEMITRANS single switch module) with This reduce overvoltage spike during short circuit switch-off only third previous value. Together with diode technology faster switching further reduction switching losses have been achieved. SEMITRANS lower isolating collar arround control area, which allows attachment printed circuit board directly module, which good railway equipment single board inverter design. SEMITRANS also option VCE-monitoring/ sense terminal number (i.e. type 500GA123DS). Other single switch modules available option request (add suffix "S", provided min. quantity (>500)
Fig. Reverse recovery current voltage diode oscillogram (typical)
Fig. IGBT silicon structures homogeneous (NPT) epitaxial (PT)
Information regarding replacement "SKM .121D" resp.".122D" actual version ".123D" maintenance gen. IGBT-Stacks repair following procedure recommended: modules paralleled: dissemble defective device 1st. gen., ending ,,.0D", ,,1D" ,,2D" i.e. 100GB121D device, i.e. 100GB123D using fixing screws (Standard) mount heatsink. previously supplied screw long threaded hole, which case pls. apply another washer thick under each fixing screw tighten with suitable standard screws with standard material grade (instead max. which valid screws with material ,,8.8") Check: switching frequency o.k. Gateresistor Rgoff (100 Icnom) o.k, i.e. Rgoff 100GB123D Gateprotection zener diode limits o.k. Gate switch-on voltage Check gate switch-off voltage, VGEoff VGEoff then o.k., optimised VGEoff then o.k., then enlarge Rgoff Rgoff (100 Icnom) VGEoff then proceed with gate voltage VGEoff check fsw: kHz, then o.k. kHz, then Rgoff (100 Icnom) i.e. Rgoff 100GB123D capacitor cnom /100 i.e. 100GB123D between terminals module. driver SKHI (VGEoff applied kHz, then kHz, then replace SKHI SKHI (serves VGEoff When using driver circuits with accessable control voltage source recommend clamp gate schottky diode (anode gate) protection limit short circuit current modules paralleled, i.e. 200GB122D, then total branch must exchanged into 200GB123D 300GB123D (lower VCEsat), because version .123 lower VCEsat, switches faster dynamically matched series 122D.
Then ensure, that following values kept: VGEoff Rgoff (100 Icnom) front each gate; symmetrical tree arrangement, Rgon (100 Icnom) front each gate; symmetrical tree arrangement front each auxiliary emitter terminal avoid principal current loop through driver circuit, burning thin control lead. Gate voltage clamped Vsupply gate driver supply Schottky diode Anode gate, cathode VCEsat selection necessary because spread this value devices same production code small temperature coefficient positive: hotter chip takes less current.The given Goff values rule thumb should checked suitable test procedure should optimized. Exchange first generation bipolar SEMITRANS case i.e. following types 100GB100D, 150GB100D, (1989 1991)and 150GB101D, 150GB121D well asSKM 200GB101D, 200GB121D (1992 1994):These types main terminals with distance each other plastic ribs between; there longer direct mechanical electrical replacement type from SEMIKRON. (SKM 150GB123D 200GB123D have main terminal distance which could tried where possible). mechanically electrically fully compatible direct replacement contact your local SEMIKRONsales service. Availability first generation modules types, ending Production terminated 1997. Some parts still stock, spare parts subject prior sale. Contact SEMIKRON. Using SEMIKRON DRIVERS When using SEMIKRON drivers with negative VGEoff existing IGBT-stacks, there will problems when using IGBT generation lieu IGBTs gen. making stack assembly.
When replacing generation IGBTs building IGBT stacks with generation IGBTs advices given under point should observed. applications SEMIKRON recommends drivers with negative VGEoff inverter applications.
dependence required driving power following table shows SEMIKRON drivers available with negative VGEoff
Driver Type type
Circuit Configuration SINGLE driver DUAL driver DUAL driver DUAL driver DUAL driver SIXPACK driver
Remark replaces type SKHI
SKHI SKHI 10/17
SKHI 23/12; ./17 SKHI SKHI SKHI 272) SKHI
Data sheet request paralleling IGBT modules request).
Here main rules summary: Avoid magnetic coupling principal current gate circuit suppress positive feedback gate voltage. pulse capacitors (i.e. WIMA MKP10 RIFA similar) between plus minus terminal compensate parasitic inductance electrolytic capacitors reduce voltage spikes negative gate voltage switch-off bridge configurations suppress unwanted switch-on (via Miller capacitance Cres). Rgoff avoid parasitic currents driver. hard gate voltage clamping directly control terminal. Schottky diode) short-circuit switch-off soft switch-off circuit gate drive circuit advantageous. When paralleling modules symmetrical inductance busbaring symmetrical positioning terminals load side circuit.
When paralleling modules resistor front each auxiliary emitter, avoid by-pass main current. directly parallel gates, only suitable, symmetrical gate resistor network (Rgon, Rgoff, Rex). Important handling Instructions avoid electrostatic discharge gate which would destroy IGBT, module delivered with conductive material connecting gates emitters electrically. Details When unpacking module during assembly conductive grounded armbands conductive grounded working place.
Important assembly instructions order guarantee good thermal contact keep with contact thermal resistance values specified data sheets contact area heatsink must clean free from particles. unevenness remaining after grinding milling those areas must less than continous, roughness less than Before mounting heatsink mounting surfaces should uniformly coated with thermal compound (e.g. CORNING Wacker-Chemie SEMIKRON IDENT 30106620 (0,02 0,03 thick)). recommended rubber roller. silicone grease. Please note that industry does accept silicone grease because possible problems body painting process. this case non-volatile silicone free thermal compound. Possible suppliers are: ELECTROLUBE "2GX" "Non silicone heat transfer compound HTC)" from FISCHER ELEKTRONIK: "silicone free thermal compound type WLPF (5g) g)", +49.2351.45754 other vendors. recommended rubber squeegee. SEMITRANS® IGBT modules preferably secured with screws which withstand specified mounting torque. Flat spring washers (e.g. 127) should always used. Recommended mounting hardware page When tightening screws SEMITRANS module first them equally hand diagonal sequence (crosswise) then suitable tool regarding maximum torque (M1) datasheet. After period hours screws should again crosswise tightened specified torque thermal compound spreads under mounting pressure. When soldering (Faston) terminals keep Tsolder sec. accordance with 68-2-20 (Test Ta). SIXPACKs SEVENPACKs made wave soldering. Always ground soldering iron. Make wiring control terminals twisted short possible reduce inductance avoid oscillations. Busbars should connected heavy current terminals. lugs direct connection terminals recommended. required cable lugs connected busbars which turn screwed down SEMITRANS® IGBT module. Also here screws with captive washers should used specified torque applied. page Care must taken that busbar screws penetrate sufficiently into their tapped hole give secure fixing, also that screws bottom this blind tapped hole that busbars held tightly. Every semiconductor device sensitive maximum permissible junction temperature being exceeded. Care should therefore taken equipment design stage ensure that semiconductor device heated other heat generating components. Make sure, also when designing circuit, that IGBT-module operated measured with open gate-emitter connections (i.e.
Insulation testing insulation between live parts baseplate every SEMITRANS® IGBT module tested before delivery second 3000 a.c. (UL-requirement). 1700 IGBT with kVrms. specifications isolation voltage equipment included Publication 146-1-1: 1991, respectively 60146-1-1: 1993 clause 4.2.1. 0558 T1-1: 1993-04) 178: 1997 (VDE 0160): 1998 During test electrical terminals including gate terminals must connected with each other order avoid damage inductively capacitively induced voltage transients. test voltage applied between connected terminals baseplate. superfast 600V NPT-IGBT "SKM .063D" superfast NPT-IGBT structure ("NonPunch-Through"-IGBT) homogeneous silicon structure. very thin IGBT chip made original (n-)-silicon wafer, without epitaxial (n+)-buffer layer. epitaxial buffer layer contains charge carrier life time killers (like heavy metal ions) which used PTIGBTs ("Punch-Through" -IGBT). PT-IGBT shows improvement forward direction conductivity, generates essentially higher tail current during turn-off that also temperature dependent. Both effects result high turn-off losses. PT-IGBTs also exhibit larger spread Vcesat values negative temperature coefficient which paralleling requires selection. Special advantages -IGBT: Vcesat ICN; 25°C) with small voltage spread (+0,1 within production with positive temperature coefficient (PT-IGBT 2,3V+0,3V with negative temperature coefficient). superfast switching: 30.50 IGBT: ns). small tail current Eoff 0,04 mJ/A (PT-IGBT: 0,11 mJ/A) with small positive temperature coefficient. typical ruggedness, NPTs short circuit current self-limiting about times nominal current (PT-IGBT: times current additional electronic protection needed). rectangular RBSOA safe operation area, i.e. full voltage full current switch-off (compared reduced voltage with necessity RCDsnubbers PT-IGBT). Diode advantages: fast soft reverse current also temperatures currents with high di/dt, forward voltage drop latch-up free, i.e. turns under short circuit conditions hard switching mode, current self-limiting (PT- IGBT: sensitive during turn-off short circuit, need snubber circuits creates additional losses).This important silent, highly efficient UPS's switching high frequency.
Main application fields: noise servo drive inverters driven from supply, noise connected supplies, welding inverters kHz), battery vehicles, replacement MOSFETs range 400. 800V) using switching frequencies above hard switching mode 100kHz resonant mode using zero voltage zero current switching). 600V PT-IGBT "SKM .062D" SEMIKRON continues manufacture modules that include PT-IGBT chips: 195GB062D (housing SEMITRANS 400GB062D (housing SEMITRANS Both modules handle high currents. turn under short-circuit conditions Vcc= PT-IGBT chips turn slower than chips. Thus voltage overshoots this current range. overshoot voltage obtained from internal stray inductance (approx. SKM195GB062D: SKM400GB062D: nH). Loss 1200 IGBT "SKM .124D" comparison current range NPT- IGBT modules "SKM .123D" saturation version "SKM .124D" following features rule thumb): approx. higher current Tcase 80°C) approx. lower Vcesat (typ. Icn, 125°C, instead higher Eoff slower current decline higher (rounder, longer) tail current, with temperature dependence, switches faster with higher di/dt turns softer with lower di/dt same Rgon Rgoff. same di/dt when compared series "SKM .123D" could increase Rgon reduce Rgoff 50%.
more advantageous lower switching frequencies (generally about kHz) Maintains familiar ruggedness (self limiting short circuit current 10µs)) square RBSOA (full voltage full current turn-off) Includes diode, advantages soft reverse current with lower, rounder peak value Irrm, forward voltage with temperature coefficient, easy parallel without Vf-selection. Main application fields range "SKM .124D": Inverter drives un-interruptable power supplies (UPS) connected (400-500) supplies, wind solar power generators, using switching frequencies kHz. production series "SKM .123D" modules continued, because loss advantage higher switching frequencies kHz), lower shorter tail current. improvement ceramic soldering process control allows reduction Rthjc given chip size. This applies both module series "SKM .123 "SKM .124 loss 1700 NPT- IGBT "SKM .174D" These being developed. Compared .173D: reduction static losses, lower Vcesat 125°C) lower Cies, remarkably reduced shortcircuit (selflimiting Icnom), higher power same housing. further information please contact your nearest SEMIKRON office.
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