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LM5010A High Voltage Step Down Switching Regulator
LM5010A High Voltage Step Down Switching Regulator
LM5010A Step Down Switching Regulator enhanced version LM5010 with input operating range extended minimum. LM5010A features functions needed implement cost, efficient, buck regulator capable supplying excess load current. This high voltage regulator integrates N-Channel Buck Switch, available thermally enhanced LLP-10 TSSOP-14EP packages. constant on-time regulation scheme requires loop compensation resulting fast load transient response simplified circuit implementation. operating frequency remains constant with line load variations inverse relationship between input voltage on-time. valley current limit detection 1.25A. Additional features include: under-voltage lock-out, thermal shutdown, gate drive under-voltage lock-out, maximum duty cycle limiter.
Wide Input Voltage Range Valley Current Limiting 1.25A Programmable Switching Frequency Integrated N-Channel Buck Switch Integrated High Voltage Bias Regulator Loop Compensation Required Ultra-Fast Transient Response Nearly Constant Operating Frequency With Line Load Variations Adjustable Output Voltage 2.5V, Feedback Reference Programmable Soft-Start Thermal shutdown
Non-Isolated Telecommunications Regulator Secondary Side Post Regulator Power Supply Automotive Electronics
LLP-10 TSSOP-14EP Both Packages Have Exposed Thermal Improved
Basic Step Down Regulator
2008 National Semiconductor Corporation
Order Number LM5010ASD LM5010ASDX LM5010AMH LM5010AMHE LM5010AMHX LM5010AHMH LM5010AHMHX Package Type LLP-10 (4x4) LLP-10 (4x4) TSSOP-14EP TSSOP-14EP TSSOP-14EP TSSOP-14EP TSSOP-14EP Package Drawing SDC10A SDC10A MXA14A MXA14A MXA14A MXA14A MXA14A Junction Temperature Range -40°C 125°C -40°C 125°C -40°C 125°C -40°C 125°C -40°C 125°C -40°C 150°C -40°C 150°C Supplied 1000 Units Tape Reel 4500 Units Tape Reel Units Rail Units Tape Reel 2500 Units Tape Reel Available Soon Available Soon
Number LLP-10 TSSOP-14 Switching Node Internally connected buck switch source. Connect inductor, free-wheeling diode, bootstrap capacitor. Connect capacitor from pin. capacitor charged from internal diode during buck switch off-time. During buck switch off-time, inductor current flows through internal sense resistor, ISEN free-wheeling diode. current limit comparator keeps buck switch ISEN current exceeds 1.25A (typical). Re-circulating current flows into this current sense resistor. Ground return internal circuitry other than current sense resistor. Input both regulation over-voltage comparators. regulation level 2.5V. internal 11.5 current source charges capacitor 2.5V soft-start reference input regulation comparator. external resistor from RON/SD sets buck switch on-time. Grounding this shuts down regulator. voltage nominally equal 8.9V, regulated 8.9V. Connect 0.47 larger capacitor from ground, close possible pins. external voltage applied this reduce internal dissipation greater than 8.9V. MOSFET body diodes clamp VIN. Nominal input range 75V. Input bypass capacitors should located close possible pins. internal connection. connected ground plane improve heat dissipation. Exposed metal underside device. recommended connect this board ground plane heat dissipation. Name Description Application Information
Boost bootstrap capacitor
Current Sense Ground Circuit Ground Voltage feedback input from regulated output Softstart
On-time control shutdown
Output bias regulator
Input supply voltage
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note
Military/Aerospace specified devices required, please contact National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors availability specifications. (Steady State) SGND -0.3V -0.3V -1.5V -0.3V -0.3V +0.3V -0.3V
Other Inputs -0.3V Rating (Note Human Body Model Storage Temperature Range -65°C +150°C Lead Temperature (Soldering sec) (Note 260°C
Voltage Junction Temperature LM5010A LM5010AH
(Note 6.0V -40°C 125°C -40°C 150°C
Electrical Charateristics Specifications with standard type 25°C only; limits boldface type apply over full Operating Junction Temperature (TJ) range. Minimum Maximum limits guaranteed through test, design, statistical correlation. Typical values represent most likely parametric norm 25°C, provided reference purposes only. Unless otherwise stated following conditions apply: 48V, 200k. (Note
Symbol Regulator VCCReg regulated output Bypass Threshold Bypass Hysteresis output impedance kHz, 6.0V 8.5V Increasing Decreasing 6.0V 8.0V current limit (Note UVLOVcc under-voltage lock-out threshold UVLOVCC hysteresis UVLOVCC filter delay operating current shutdown current Switch Characteristics RDS(on) UVLOGD Buck Switch RDS(on) Gate Drive UVLO UVLOGD hysteresis SOFT-START Current Limit ILIM Threshold Resistance from ISEN SGND Response time Timer, RON/SD On-time On-time Shutdown threshold Threshold hysteresis 10V, 75V, Voltage RON/SD rising 0.30 2.75 1.05 Current ISEN 1.25 Internal current source 11.5 125°C 150°C VBST Increasing 0.35 0.80 0.85 48V, Increasing Decreasing overdrive Non-switching, RON/SD 0.21 5.25 Volts Parameter Conditions Units
Symbol Timer tOFF VREF
Parameter Minimum Off-time regulation threshold 125°C 150°C over-voltage threshold bias current
Regulation Over-Voltage Comparators Pin) 2.445 2.435 2.50 2.550
Thermal Shutdown Thermal shutdown temperature Thermal shutdown hysteresis Thermal Resistance Junction Ambient, LFPM Package Flow Package Junction Case Package Package
Note Absolute Maximum Ratings limits beyond which damage device occur. Operating Ratings conditions under which operation device intended functional. guaranteed specifications test conditions, Electrical Characteristics. Note human body model 100pF capacitor discharged through 1.5k resistor into each pin. Note provides bias internal gate drive control circuits. Device thermal limitations limit external loading. Note detailed information soldering plastic TSSOP packages refer Packaging Data Book available from National Semiconductor Corporation. Note Typical specifications represent most likely parametric norm 25°C operation.
Typical Performance Characteristics
FIGURE Startup Sequence
LM5010A Step Down Switching Regulator features functions needed implement cost, efficient buck DC-DC converter capable supplying excess load. This high voltage regulator integrates N-Channel buck switch, with easy implement constant on-time controller. available thermally enhanced LLP-10 TSSOP-14EP packages. regulator compares feedback voltage 2.5V reference control buck switch, provides switch on-time which varies inversely with VIN. This feature results operating frequency remaining relatively constant with load input voltage variations. switching frequency range from less than MHz. regulator requires loop compensation resulting very fast load transient response. valley current limit circuit holds buck switch until free-wheeling inductor current falls below current limit threshold, nominally 1.25A. LM5010A applied numerous applications efficiently step down higher voltages. This regulator well
suited telecom applications, well automotive power bus. Features include: Thermal shutdown, under-voltage lock-out, gate drive under-voltage lock-out, maximum duty cycle limit.
Control Circuit Overview
LM5010A employs control scheme based comparator one-shot on-timer, with output voltage feedback (FB) compared internal reference (2.5V). voltage below reference buck switch turned time period determined input voltage programming resistor (RON). Following on-time switch remains fixed off-time, until voltage falls below reference, whichever longer. buck switch then turns another on-time period. Referring Block Diagram, output voltage regulated output voltage calculated follows: VOUT 2.5V LM5010A requires minimum ripple voltage stable fixed-frequency operation. output
capacitor's insufficient additional series resistance required Block Diagram). LM5010A operates continuous conduction mode heavy load currents, discontinuous conduction mode light load currents. continuous conduction mode current always flows through inductor, never decaying zero during off-time. this mode operating frequency remains relatively constant with load line variations. minimum load current continuous conduction mode onehalf inductor's ripple current amplitude. operating frequency continuous conduction mode calculated follows:
Start-Up Bias Regulator (VCC)
high voltage bias regulator integrated within LM5010A. input (VIN) connected directly line voltages between 75V. Referring block diagram graph VIN, when between bypass threshold (nominally 8.9V), bypass switch (Q2) tracks within bypass switch on-resistance approximately with inherent current limiting approximately When above bypass threshold, turned off, regulated regulator output current limited approximately When LM5010A shutdown using RON/SD pin, bypass switch shut off, regardless voltage VIN. When exceeds bypass threshold, time required shut approximately capacitor (C3) must minimum 0.47 prevent voltage from rising above absolute maximum rating response step input applied VIN. must located close possible LM5010A pins. applications with relatively high input voltage, power dissipation bias regulator concern. auxiliary voltage between 7.5V diode connected Figure shut regulator, reducing internal power dissipation. current required into shown Typical Performance Characteristics. Internally diode connects requiring that auxiliary voltage less than VIN. turn-on sequence shown Figure When exceeds under-voltage lock-out threshold (UVLO) 5.25V Figure buck switch enabled, released allow soft-start capacitor (C6) charge output voltage VOUT regulated reduced level which increases desired value soft-start voltage increases Figure
buck switch duty cycle equal
Under light load conditions, LM5010A operates discontinuous conduction mode, with zero current flowing through inductor portion off-time. operating frequency always lower than that continuous conduction mode, switching frequency varies with load current. Conversion efficiency maintained relatively high level light loads since switching losses diminish power delivered load reduced. discontinuous mode operating frequency approximately:
where load resistance.
FIGURE Self Biased Configuration
feedback voltage compared voltage (2.5V, ±2%). normal operation on-time period initiated when voltage falls below 2.5V. buck switch conducts on-time programmed RON, causing voltage rise above 2.5V. After on-time period buck switch remains until voltage falls
below 2.5V. Input bias current less than over temperature.
feedback voltage compared internal 2.9V reference. voltage rises above 2.9V on-time immediately terminated. This condition occur
voltage, output load, changes suddenly. buck switch remains until voltage falls below 2.5V.
on-time internal buck switch determined resistor input voltage IN), calculated follows:
minimum off-time LM5010A (260 ±15%). fixed off-time limits maximum duty cycle achievable with voltage VIN. minimum allowed on-time regulate desired VOUT minimum determined from following:
resistor determined from desired on-time re-arranging Equation following:
LM5010A remotely shut down forcing RON/ below 0.7V with switch open drain device. Figure shutdown mode internally grounded, on-time one-shot disabled, input current reduced, bypass switch turned off. regulator disabled shutdown mode. Releasing RON/SD allows normal operation resume. nominal voltage RON/SD shown Typical Performance Characteristics. When switching RON/SD pin, transition time should faster than cycles regulator's nominal switching frequency.
specific continuous conduction mode switching frequency (Fs), resistor determined from following:
high frequency applications minimum value limited maximum duty cycle required regulation
FIGURE Shutdown Implementation
Current limit detection occurs during off-time monitoring recirculating current through internal current sense resistor (RSENSE). detection threshold 1.25A, ±0.25A. Referring Block Diagram, current into SGND during off-time exceeds threshold level current limit comparator delays start next on-time period. next on-time starts when current into SGND below threshold voltage below 2.5V. Figure illustrates inductor current waveform during normal operation during current limit. output current average inductor ripple current waveform. Load Current waveform illustrates continuous conduction mode operation with peak valley inductor currents below current limit threshold. When load current increased (High Load Current), ripple waveform maintains same amplitude frequency since current falls below current limit threshold valley ripple waveform. Note average current High Load Current portion Figure above current limit threshold. Since current reduces below threshold normal off-time each cycle, start
each on-time delayed, circuit's output voltage regulated correct value. When load current further increased such that lower peak would above threshold, off-time lengthened allow current decrease threshold before next on-time begins (Current Limited portion Figure Both VOUT switching frequency reduced circuit operates constant current mode. load current (IOCL) equal current limit threshold plus half ripple current (I/2). ripple amplitude calculated from:
current limit threshold increased connecting external resistor (RCL) between SGND ISEN. typically less than calculation value explained Applications Information section. current limit threshold increased adding RCL, maximum continuous load current should exceed 1.5A, peak current should exceed
FIGURE Inductor Current Current Limit Operation
Channel Buck Switch Driver
LM5010A integrates N-Channel buck switch associated floating high voltage gate driver. peak current through buck switch should exceed load current should exceed 1.5A. gate driver circuit powered external bootstrap capacitor between (C4), which recharged each off-time from through internal high voltage diode. minimum offtime, nominally ensures sufficient time during each cycle recharge bootstrap capacitor. 0.022 ceramic capacitor recommended
EXTERNAL COMPONENTS procedure calculating external components illustrated with design example. Referring Block Diagram, circuit configured following specifications: VOUT Minimum load current Maximum load current 1.0A Softstart time These resistors output voltage, their ratio calculated from: R1/R2 (VOUT/2.5V) (10) R1/R2 calculates 1.0. resistors should chosen from standard value resistors range value will used RON, chosen using Equation nominal frequency, from Equation on-time particular important. higher frequency generally means smaller inductor capacitors (value, size cost), higher switching losses. lower frequency means higher efficiency, with larger components. Generally, board space tight, higher frequency better. resulting on-time frequency have ±25% tolerance. Using equation nominal
soft-start feature allows regulator gradually reach steady state operating point, thereby reducing startup stresses current surges. turn-on, while below under-voltage threshold Figure internally grounded, VOUT held When exceeds under-voltage threshold (UVLO) internal 11.5 current source charges external capacitor (C6) 2.5V Figure increasing voltage noninverting input regulation comparator gradually increases output voltage from zero desired value. softstart feature keeps load inductor current from reaching current limit threshold during start-up, thereby reducing inrush currents. internal switch grounds below under-voltage lock-out threshold, thermal shutdown occurs, circuit shutdown using RON/SD pin.
LM5010A should operated below Maximum Operating Junction Temperature rating. junction temperature increases during fault abnormal operating condition, internal Thermal Shutdown circuit activates typically 175°C. Thermal Shutdown circuit reduces power dissipation disabling buck switch on-timer, grounding pin. This feature helps prevent catastrophic failures from accidental device overheating. When junction temperature reduces below approximately 155°C (20°C typical hysteresis), released normal operation resumes. value will used RON, yielding nominal frequency 60V. guideline choosing inductor value this example that must keep circuit's operation continuous conduction mode minimum load current. This strict requirement since LM5010A regulates correctly when discontinuous conduction mode, although lower frequency. However, provide initial value above guideline will used.
FIGURE Inductor Current keep circuit continuous conduction mode, maximum allowed ripple current twice minimum load current, mAp-p. Using this value ripple current, inductor (L1) calculated using following: (IPK+), then drops zero turn-off. average current into during this on-time load current. worst case calculation, must supply this average current during maximum on-time. maximum on-time calculated using Equation with tolerance added:
(11) where FS(min) minimum frequency (205 25%) VIN(max). voltage should allowed drop below 5.5V order maintain above UVLO.
This provides minimum value next higher standard value (100 will used. prevent saturation, possible destructive current levels, must rated peak current which occurs current limit maximum ripple current reached simultaneously (IPK Figure maximum ripple amplitude calculated re-arranging Equation using VIN(max), FS(min), minimum inductor value, based manufacturer's tolerance. Assume, this exercise, inductor's tolerance ±20%.
Normally lower value used since above calculation worst case calculation which assumes power source high source impedance. quality ceramic capacitor with should used Since LM5010A requires minimum mVp-p ripple proper operation, required ripple VOUT increased equal VRIPPLE mVp-p R2)/R2 mVp-p This necessary ripple voltage created inductor ripple current acting C2's First, minimum ripple current, which occurs minimum VIN, maximum inductor value, maximum frequency, determined.
ILIM IOR(max) 1.5A 0.372A 1.872A where ILIM maximum guaranteed current limit threshold. nominal maximum load current 1.0A, peak inductor current 1.186A. RCL: Since obvious that lower peak inductor current waveform does exceed 1.0A maximum load current (see Figure necessary increase current limit threshold. Therefore needed this exercise. applications where lower peak exceeds 1.0A, section entitled Increasing Current Limit Threshold. This capacitor limits ripple voltage resulting from source impedance supply feeding this circuit, on/off nature switch current into VIN. maximum load current, when buck switch turns current into steps from zero lower peak inductor current waveform (IPK- Figure ramps peak valwww.national.com
(13) minimum then equal
capacitor used does have sufficient ESR, added series shown Block Diagram. value chosen application dependent, recommended that smaller than affects ripple VOUT, transient response. Experimentation usually necessary determine optimum value
capacitor provides noise filtering stability, prevents false triggering UVLO buck switch on/off transitions, limits peak voltage when high voltage with short rise time initially applied VIN. should smaller than 0.47 should good quality, ESR, ceramic capacitor, physically close pins. recommended value 0.022 high quality ceramic capacitor with recommended supplies surge current charge buck switch gate each turn-on. also ensures complete recharge during each off-time. This capacitor suppresses transients ringing lead inductance VIN. ESR, ceramic chip capacitor recommended, located physically close LM5010A. capacitor determines soft-start time, i.e. time reference voltage regulation comparator, output voltage, reach their final value. capacitor value determined from following:
softstart time, calculates 0.022 Schottky diode recommended. Ultra-fast recovery diodes recommended high speed transitions inadvertently affect IC's operation through external internal EMI. diode should rated maximum (60V), maximum load current (1A), peak current which occurs when current limit maximum ripple current reached simultaneously (IPK Figure previously calculated 1.87A. diode's forward voltage drop affects efficiency power dissipated during off-time. average power dissipation calculated from: where load current, duty cycle. FINAL CIRCUIT final circuit shown Figure performance shown Figures Current limit measured approximately 1.3A.
FIGURE Example Circuit
Description Ceramic Capacitor Ceramic Capacitor Ceramic Capacitor Ceramic Capacitor Ceramic Capacitor Schottky Diode Inductor Resistor Resistor Resistor Resistor National Semi LM5010A
Value 100V 0.47 0.022 100V 100V,
will either shutdown, cycle frequency. load current expected drop below application, should chosen enough value they provide minimum required current nominal VOUT. OUTPUT RIPPLE CONFIGURATIONS applications where output voltage ripple required output taken directly from output capacitor (C2) shown Figure However, slightly degrades load regulation. specific component values, application determine this suitable.
FIGURE Efficiency Load Current Circuit Figure
FIGURE Ripple Output Where circuit Figure suitable, circuits Figure Figure used.
FIGURE Frequency Circuit Figure MINIMUM LOAD CURRENT LM5010A requires minimum load current load current falls below that level, bootstrap capacitor (C4) discharge during long off-time, circuit
FIGURE Output Ripple Using Feedforward Capacitor Figure added across AC-couple ripple VOUT directly pin. This allows ripple VOUT reduced, some cases considerably, reducing circuit Figure ripple VOUT ranged from mVp-p mVp-p 60V. adding
1000 capacitor reducing 0.75, VOUT ripple reduced 50%, ranging from mVp-p mVp-p.
where OR(max) calculated using Equation inductor diode must rated this current. exceeds inductor value must increased reduce ripple amplitude. This will necessitate recalculation IOR(min), IPK-, RCL. Increasing circuit's current limit will increase power dissipation junction temperature within LM5010A. next section guidelines this issue. BOARD LAYOUT THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS LM5010A regulation, over-voltage, current limit comparators very fast, will respond short duration noise pulses. Layout considerations therefore critical optimum performance. layout must neat compact possible, components must close possible their associated pins. major current loops have currents which switch very fast, loops should small possible minimize conducted radiated EMI. first loop that formed through pins, back second loop that formed SGND ISEN pins. ground connection from should short direct possible, preferably without going through vias. Directly connect SGND each other, they should connected directly possible C1/C2 ground line without going through vias. power dissipation within approximated determining total conversion loss (PIN POUT), then subtracting power losses free-wheeling diode inductor. power loss diode approximately: (1-D) where load current, diode's forward voltage drop, duty cycle. power loss inductor approximately: where inductor's resistance, factor approximation losses. expected that internal dissipation LM5010A will produce high junction temperatures during normal operation, good board's ground plane help considerably dissipate heat. exposed package bottom should soldered ground plane, that plane should both extend from beneath connected exposed ground plane board's other side using many vias possible. exposed internally connected substrate. wide board traces pins, where possible, help conduct heat away from four Connect pins TSSOP package electrically connected part connected ground plane help dissipate heat from package. Judicious positioning board within product, along with available flow (forced natural convection) help reduce junction temperature.
FIGURE Output Ripple Using Ripple Injection reduce VOUT ripple further, circuit Figure used. been removed, output ripple amplitude determined C2's inductor ripple current. chosen generate 40-50 mVp-p sawtooth their junction, that voltage AC-coupled selecting VOUT considered virtual ground switches between -1V. Since on-time varies inversely with VIN, waveform amplitude RA/CA junction relatively constant. must typically increased more than each significantly attenuate signal provided through Typical values additional components 200k, 0.01 INCREASING CURRENT LIMIT THRESHOLD current limit threshold nominally 1.25A, with minimum guaranteed value 1.0A. maximum load current, lower peak inductor current (IPK- Figure exceeds 1.0A, resistor must added between SGND ISEN increase current limit threshold equal exceed that lower peak current. This resistor diverts some recirculating current from internal sense resistor that higher current level needed switch internal current limit comparator. IPK- calculated from:
(14) where IO(max) maximum load current, IOR(min) minimum ripple current calculated using Equation calculated from:
(15) where 0.11 minimum value internal resistance from SGND ISEN. next smaller standard value resistor should used RCL. With addition RCL, when circuit current limit, upper peak current (IPK Figure high
Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
14-Lead TSSOP Package Package Number MXA14A
10-Lead Package Package Number SDC10A
LM5010A High Voltage Step Down Switching Regulator
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